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Showing posts from March, 2018

Using Construction Drawings & Overcoming Idiosyncrasies

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Technology offers many more choices of how to generate, update, store, retrieve, and reproduce construction drawings than existed even ten years ago. Each type of technology has its idiosyncrasies to learn. For a project to run smoothly, you should remember several tricks of the trade relating to these idiosyncrasies when using drawings.


Other aspects of using drawings are almost timeless: proper field measurement techniques, taking field notes, and making modifications and updates. They are timeless because no matter what technology is used, there are opportunities for human error that translate into contractual difficulties.

There are many ways to generate or reproduce drawings, which in some ways have added to the complexities of duplication. For example, although sophisticated copiers that shrink or enlarge an image at the touch of a button facilitate reproduction, they can also create pitfalls.
Print SizesPrint sizes are somewhat standardized in the United States. Standard sizes are…

Due Diligence: The first step in a property acquisition

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Asset managers understand the variety of factors that contribute to the profitability of owning and operating a successful property, which can make them invaluable participants in the acquisition process. This process begins with a valuation of a property known as preliminary due diligence, which is the first and most important step in the purchase of commercial real estate.

Through the process of due diligence, all aspects of a property are examined, and its value is determined. Poor due diligence can affect the financial interests of a new owner. Nothing short of full, comprehensive, and verifiable due diligence should satisfy any buyer when purchasing real estate.
Due Diligence Regarding Income and ExpenseVerification of rental income and operational expenses is of paramount importance to any buyer. A buyer must be certain that he or she can maintain the income that the property has historically generated. The expense side of the operating statement must have verifiable costs, be com…

Evaporator: Types and Design Applications

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An evaporator is a device that absorbs the heat surrounding it to cause the liquid refrigerant inside it to boil until the refrigerant leaves as a superheated (saturated) gas. Each evaporator operates according to the same basic formula: it absorbs heat while boiling off the liquid refrigerant.

Remember that heat travels from a warmer substance to a cooler one. Consequently, the evaporator must be at a lower temperature than its surroundings. For example, a home air conditioner would have an evaporator coil temperature of 40°F, which is its boiling temperature at 68.5 psig when using refrigerant-22 (R-22). As long as air moving across the evaporator stays above 40°F, the refrigerant in the evaporator will boil, absorbing the heat from the room air and transferring it to the refrigerant.
Design ApplicationsWhen designing an evaporator, an engineer must ask and answer the following questions about the design of the system:
What material should be used to construct the evaporator? Cost and …